Archive digitization



Aviation and Diplomacy

Frank Piasecki

NATO 1949-2009 Projekt ekspozycji w Muzeum Lotnictwa Polskiego w Krakowie



Polish Aviation Museum

31-864 Kraków,
al. Jana Pawła II 39
phone: (12) 640 99 60,
(12) 642 40 70
e-mail: info@muzeumlotnictwa.pl

a cultural institution of the Malopolska Region

Małopolska – Kraków Region


Patronage

Kraków Airport







Aeroplane: Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19PM (NATO: Farmer-E)

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19PM (NATO: Farmer-E)
USSR
fighter
1957



  • Technical data


Span 9.0 m
Length 13.02 m
Take-off weight 7880 kg
Maximum speed 1250 km/h
Ceiling 16800 m
Range (with additional fuel tanks)  1910 km
Armament see text
Powerplant :
2 x RD-9B turbojets, 3250 kG of thrust each.

 

In August 1951, at the Kremlin, a decision of starting work on two new, twin engine fighters with increased range fell through. One of the aeroplanes, equipped with radar gun-sight, was envisaged to play the role of an all weather interceptor, capable of operating at night.
The second one was a long range escort fighter, with the capability of flying long distance missions with one engine disengaged (for fuel saving purposes).
At the 155 Mikoyan and Guryevich Experimental and Construction Bureau, work on the experimental twin engine frontal fighter, the SM-1, based on the MiG-17, had already been carried out. A small sized engine allowed for extra space for fuel tanks. The designers were also aware of the possibility of increasing the range by decreasing drag, using wings with a bigger sweep.
At the beginning of 1952, the new SM-2 (I-360) appeared, with significant changes from the SM-1 (based on the MiG-17). Tests carried out on the experimental SM-2, SM-2/2 and SM-9 (the rebuilt SM-2/2), paved the way to a new construction.
It appeared that the aircraft would not be a good escort fighter, but could be a successful supersonic frontal fighter.
The SM-9 became a prototype for the new supersonic MiG-19 fighter.
Not wanting to wait for test completions, the Soviet Board of Ministers ordered the aircraft into production under the MiG-19 name in February 1954.
In March 1955, the first MiG-19 came into service.
The MiG-19 had a pressurised cockpit, in which pilots had to wear a G-suit. The design of such a suit came about in the 1950's and still is in use today.
The test flights of the SM-9 aircraft showed problems with the horizontal rudder (at the trans and supersonic speeds). The only solution was to apply a slab tail (one piece, with no parting into the fixed stabiliser and movable rudder).
Work started on the experimental SM-9/2 prototype at the beginning of 1954. The first flights came in September 1954. They revealed serious problems with steering and stabilising. The problem was solved by applying an automatic device, switched into the steering system, which yawed the tail slab for an angle dependable to speed, directly changing the stick load. More effective air brakes were used, assisted by an extra break deflecting at the lower, middle part of the fuselage. The pilot?s escape system was improved.
The armament was increased to three, high fire rating, 30mm cannons (replacing the 23mm canons), leaving the possibility for carrying external stores (fuel tanks, bombs, unguided rockets). The SM-9/2 and its follower, the SM-9/3 became a pattern for the production of new, improved aircraft (along with already earlier introduced changes). The Mig-19S, however was not free from technical problems, caused by low production quality and half-baked technical details. All the consecutive versions of the aircraft can be evaluated this way. A high price was paid for new technology.
The MiG-19, the MiG-19S and the MiG-19SW were produced by two manufacturers, in a quantity of 1083 examples.
In 1956, Czechoslovakia bought the licence for the MiG-19S. In 1958-1961, 103 examples (plus one, for static tests) were produced.
The MiG-19 was also produced in China in 1959-1986. There, it served as a base for the development of the new Q-5 fighter bomber.
During tests in the Soviet Union, the need for a night and all weather interceptor, became apparent. In 1954, the SM-7 aircraft, based on the MiG-19, was developed. It was equipped with the "Izumrud" radar gun-sight, placed in the nose.
The new interceptor entered production as the MiG-19P. The SM-7/2 aircraft, based on the MiG-19S, tested in 1955, bore the same designation. It was equipped with the RP-5 radar gun-sight, featuring a bigger range and better durability to interference. Part of the produced aircraft was equipped with the "Gorizont" radio device, enabling the guidance of the air target, using a ground unit. The armament was limited to two 30mm cannons, external stores were similar to that of the MiG-19S.
433 MiG-19P's were produced by one manufacturer. Its licence production was also realised in China.
In 1956, seven MiG-19P?s were rebuilt, enabling the use of the RS-1U guided missiles. The next two aircraft were utilised to use the RS-2U (complex K-5) missile, guided by a radio beam emitted by the RP-2U radar gun-sight. The fighter entered production under the MiG-19PM (type 65) designation. Its armament consisted of four RP-2U guided missiles fired from the under wing rail launchers. Two auxiliary fuel tanks were also attached to the hard points. In the Soviet Union, the aircraft was produced by one manufacturer. The MiG-19PM was also produced in China.
By the end of the 1950's, further development of the aircraft was planned. Aiming at better use as an interceptor, the fighter was equipped with a better armament system (SM-12PM, 12-PMU).
Poland used the MiG-19PM's in the Polish Air Force. The fighters were delivered in 1958 and 1959 and remained in service until 1974. In total, 33 aircraft of both types were bought.
The MiG-19P and the MiG-19PM's marked their place in Polish Air Force history, as the first supersonic fighters.

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